Jupiter Will Be 2 Times Closer Than Ever To Earth! Here's What You Need to Do to See the Giant Planet

The giant planet Jupiter will be almost 2 times closer to Earth than normal in the coming days. So how can you observe this event, which took place for the first time in 59 years?

Jupiter, the largest planet in our Solar System, will be closer to Earth in the coming days than it has been in 59 years. The planet, which is normally 965 million kilometers away from Earth on average, will be only about 590 million kilometers away from us in this century-old event that will take place on September 26.

Moreover, according to NASA scientist Adam Kobelski, people with good binoculars will be able to observe three or four moons of the giant planet along with Jupiter. The biggest requirement to make this observation is that any equipment you use will be on a fixed foot.

What should you have to see Jupiter with your eyes?

Those who want to go beyond just seeing Jupiter as a shape will need a telescope, according to Kobelski. While it is reported that telescopes of 4 inches and above will be the best observation tool, it is recommended to use green and blue filters to improve the observation experience alongside this telescope. If you have all this, you can see Jupiter along with the famous 'Great Red Spot'.

So what's the best time and place for observations?

According to Kobelski, observing Jupiter will be possible over the course of several days before and after September 26. While the exact day on which the best observation can be made will not be determined, the place and condition where the observation will be best made will be a place above sea level and dark and dry conditions.

We can expect amateur and professional observers to share their experiences with Jupiter and new vivid photos of the planet in the coming days.

So what makes Jupiter so close for the first time in 59 years?

Jupiter can be observed brighter and larger than Earth every 13 months. But the event that makes the coming days unmissable will take place thanks to the fact that the Earth and Jupiter do not rotate in a full circle around the Sun. The orbits of the planets around the Sun will intersect so closely with each other for the first time in 59 years.

The Most Famous Female Alchemist Who Invented Benmari: Maria Prophetissima (Maria the Jewess)


Maria prophetissima... It means "prophet maria" in Latin. it is also known as the Jewish maria (maria hebraea). The early gnostic and alchemist is mentioned in the works of Zosimos of Panopolis, and according to the information given by Zosimos, she was a female alchemist who lived in Alexandria in the 3rd century AD.

He also invented a number of tools that he used in his alchemical studies. the most commonly known of these tools is bain-marie. (fr. bain marie: marie's bathroom). He invented a three-armed instrument called tribicos, which was used to obtain purified substances by distillation, and this instrument is still used today in chemistry laboratories. In his writings (quoted by zosimos), mary recommended that the copper or bronze used to make the tubes be the thickness of a frying pan, and that the connections between the tubes and the immobile head be sealed with flour paste.

Another tool called kerotakis, invented by Mary, is an object used to heat substances used in alchemy and collect vapors. it is an airtight container with copper plate on the upper side. When properly functioning, it creates a tight vacuum in all joints. The use of such sealed vessels in the hermetic arts later led to the term "hermetically sealed", which was widely used in industry.

Maria also established the principle of the axiom of maria, which is accepted as one of the basic rules of alchemy.

James Webb Shared the Clearest View of Neptune's Fascinating Rings Ever

 The famous rings of the planet Neptune have been imaged by the James Webb Space Telescope. This is the first time in history that the planet's rings have been photographed so clearly.

The planet Neptune has become the new stop of the James Webb Space Telescope. This is the first time that the planet's rings have been imaged so clearly.

Whipped by dark, cold, and supersonic winds, Neptune is described as the most distant planet in the Solar System. Known as "ice giants" along with its neighbor Uranus, the planet is made up of elements whose internal structures are heavier than the hydrogen- and helium-rich gas giants Jupiter and Saturn.

Now, new images from the James Webb Space Telescope, which NASA launched into space last December, reveal Neptune and its fascinating rings that are difficult to detect in a new light. Heidi Hammel, an expert on Neptune and an interdisciplinary scientist on the Webb project, spoke about the newly taken photos and said:

"It's been thirty years since we last saw these faint, dusty rings, and this is the first time we've seen them in the infrared."

In addition to a few clear and narrow rings, images from Webb also show the planet's fainter dust bands. Some of the rings have not been observed since NASA's Voyager 2 obtained the first photographic evidence of the existence of the planet's rings in 1989.

In the new images, Neptune appears white in color in contrast to the typical blue appearance it has in views captured at visible wavelengths of light. That's because gaseous methane, which is part of the planet's chemical makeup, doesn't appear blue on Webb's Near Infrared camera (NIRCam).

Apart from the Neptune Rings, Some of the Planet's Moons Have Also Been Imaged

This image, taken with James Webb's Near Infrared camera, also shows scattering next to the planet, consisting of hundreds of background galaxies that vary in size and shape. The images also feature methane-ice clouds. These are bright lines and spots that reflect sunlight before being absorbed by methane gas. It's also possible to detect a bright, thin line surrounding the planet's equator, which could be "a visual signature of the global atmospheric circulation that powers the planet's winds and storms," according to NASA.
The new space telescope also photographed seven of Neptune's 14 known moons, including Triton, the largest moon moving in an unusual backward orbit around the planet. Astronomers think Triton is perhaps an object in the Kuiper Belt — a region of icy objects at the edge of the Solar System — that falls under the planet's gravitational grasp. Researchers plan to use Webb to study Triton and Neptune further in the coming years.

Located 30 times farther from the Sun than Earth, Neptune is moving in the distant, dark region of the outer solar system. At this distance, our heat source star is so small and faint that the midday experienced on the planet resembles a dim twilight on Earth.

74. Emmy Awards 2022: Who received the award?

The 74th Emmy Awards, called the "Oscars of Television", found their owners with the award ceremony held in Los Angeles. While Succession, who received the most awards in the ceremony, left his mark, Netflix's "Squid Game" made history by receiving multiple awards in the drama category.

Sheryl Lee Ralph won her first Emmy for Best Supporting Actress for "Abbott Elementary," becoming the second black woman to win the award. 

Lee Jung-jae became the first person to win the best actor award for a drama from a foreign-language series with the highly acclaimed Squid Game. Squid Game, Netflix's most-watched series, was also nominated for an award in the drama category, but Succession was awarded this award.


Here are the Emmy awards for 2022:

Best Comedy

"Ted Lasso" (Apple TV+)

Best Drama

"Succession" (HBO)

Best Limited Series

"The White Lotus" (HBO)

Best Actress, Comedy

Jean Smart, "Hacks"

Best Actor, Comedy

Jason Sudeikis, "Ted Lasso"

Best Actress, Drama

Zendaya, "Euphoria"

Best Actor, Drama

Lee Jung-jae, "The Squid Game"

Supporting Actress, Comedy

Sheryl Lee Ralph, "Abbott Elementary"

Supporting Actor, Comedy

Brett Goldstein, "Ted Lasso"

Supporting Actress, Drama

Julia Garner, "Ozark"

Supporting Actor, Drama

Matthew Macfadyen, "Succession"

It was a Global Warming that started the Age of Reptiles!


When we dig deep into the geological past, it is possible that we will encounter many mass extinctions due to climate change. Conducting research on these mass extinctions allows researchers to examine the impact of environmental crises on organism evolution. A prime example of mass extinctions is the Permian-Triassic climate crisis. This climate crisis, which took place during the Permian and Middle Triassic periods, 265 and 230 million years ago, respectively, is a series of climate shifts caused by global warming. These climate shifts led to the two largest mass extinctions in history at the end of the Permian period. The former took place 261 million years ago and the latter 252 million years ago, while the latter wiped out 86% of all animal species from Earth.

The extinctions during the Permian period were not only significant in terms of size. They also marked the beginning of a new era in planetary history in which reptiles were the most dominant group of vertebral animals living on land. During the Permian period, synapsites, the ancestors of mammals, dominated the vertebral fauna on land. After the Triassic-Permian extinctions, which took place 252-200 million years ago, reptiles began to evolve at a high rate. Not only did this bring a rapid increase in reptilian diversity, but it also played a key role in the formation of today's ecosystems and many extinct ecosystems. After the extinction of some species of synapsites, reptiles seized habitats and food sources that they had previously occupied. Accordingly, paleontologists concluded that the acceleration of evolution and diversification in reptiles was a result of the extinction of competing species.

But a new study in the journal Sciences Advances reveals a different situation. Researchers from Harvard University's Department of Organism and Evolutionary Biology and the Museum of Comparative Zoology have discovered that reptiles' sudden evolution and spread began much earlier. The process, which began even before the late Permian periods, was found to be due to increasing global temperatures, with a series of climatic changes in the geological record spanning 60 million years. Lead author Tiago R. Simões explains his discovery:

We discovered that these periods of sudden evolution of reptiles were closely linked to rising temperatures. Some groups changed faster, others slower; but almost all reptiles evolved much faster than before.

Previous studies on the effects of these changes have focused much on land vertebrates, with a focus on marine life and limited access to data.

In this study, Simões and expert author Prof. Stephanie E. Pierce worked with Prof. Michael Caldwell and Dr. Christian Kammerer. They studied the first phase of the evolution of amniote, the ancestor of all modern mammals, reptiles, birds and their closest extinct relatives. In this early phase, the first groups of reptiles and mammals diverged from each other and evolved in their own evolutionary path. Simões says:

Reptiles offer us a unique land system that is more ideal for us to study this issue. Because reptiles have relatively better fossil evidence. They also survived some climatic changes, including those that caused the greatest extinction of wildlife, such as the Permian-Triassic.

Compared to mammalian ancestors, reptiles were quite rare in the Permian period. But things changed drastically during the Triassic period. There was a great increase in the species numbers and formal diversity of reptiles. As a result of this situation; Many of today's important reptile groups, such as crocodiles, lizards and turtles, and some other groups that are now extinct have emerged.

The researchers uncovered a dataset on top of a large-scale collection of first-hand sources. The sources collected included 1,000 fossil specimens from 125 species: lizards, synapses, and close relatives who lived almost 140 million years ago and after the Permian-Triassic extinction. After this stage, they analyzed when these species first appeared and how quickly they evolved. They used advanced analytical techniques such as Bayesian evolution analysis, which is also used in the analysis to understand the evolution of SARS viruses. The researchers then combined global temperature data covering several million years in the geological record with the new dataset. With this, they aimed to provide a broad perspective on the adaptive response of animals to climate shifts. Pierce explains his work:

Our results show that sudden climate shifts and global warming are associated with the extremely high rates of anatomical changes observed in many of the reptilian groups adapting to their new environmental conditions. This process began at least 270 million years ago, long before the Permian-Triassic extinction. That is, the Permian-Triassic extinction did not lead to the diversification of reptiles' body structures, as is supposed. In fact, this diversification began millions of years before the extinction.

Simões explains an exceptional case they encountered in their research:

We could not observe the same situation in the Lepidosauiria group, which included the first lizards and tuataras. Unlike many groups of reptiles, they went through a rather slow phase of change relative to their overall anatomy. In fact, their body structures were constrained by natural selection, rather than changing completely in an instant, like other reptiles.

The researchers think this is due to pre-adaptations in body sizes to cope with high temperatures. Simões explains:

The physiology of organisms depends on their body size. Small-sized reptiles can exchange heat better with their environment. The first lizards and tuataras were not much different from their present relatives and were smaller compared to other groups of reptiles. So they were better able to adapt to large changes in temperature. The much larger ancestors of crocodiles, turtles and dinosaurs could not lose heat so easily. So they had to quickly change their bodies to adapt to their new environmental conditions.

Simões, Pierce and other participants also detailed how body sizes varied over time by geographic region. They discovered that there was a maximum body size for reptiles so that they could survive in the tropics during periods of lethal heat. Accordingly, they concluded that the climatic pressure in body size was quite high.Pierce explains:

Large reptiles basically had two options for dealing with climate shifts. They would either migrate to temperate regions or invade the realm of waters, where there would be no worries of overheating; because water can absorb heat and maintain its current temperature better than air.

Simões concluded:

We now know that there is a strong correlation between rising temperatures in the geological past and the sudden biological responses of different groups of reptiles. This relationship shows us that climate change was a key element in explaining the origin and increase of reptilian body structures during the last Permian-Triassic period.